Tribal Development in Nepal: The Case of Rautes


  • Pawan Koundal Indian Institute of Mass Communication, New Delhi (India).
  • Jagdishor Panday The Himalayan Times, International Media Network, Kathmandu (Nepal).


Tribal development,, Nepal, Rautes, Indigneous,, Media


The Himalayan range lies between two big giants –India and China – is rich on
adivasi, the indigenous nationalities and janajati. It is rich in culture, religion,
biodiversity, socio-cultural and linguistic diversity. According to the 2011
census of Nepal, the country has 126 castes and ethnic groups, and 123
languages. Out of them around 90 per cent of those languages have been
speaking by the indigenous people. In Nepal indigenous people are officially
described as Indigenous Nationalities. Though, the indigenous people claimed
that around 50 percent of the populations are from their tribes. But according to
2011 national data out of 26 million population of the country approximately
8.5 million are adivasi and janajati. Under the National Foundation for
Development of Indigenous Nationalities (NFDIN) Act-2002, the Nepal
government has officially and legally recognized 59 indigenous communities
in the country. The Rautes are one of Nepal's most typical indigenous groups
that have maintained for generations their unique cultural identity. They are
the country's only nomadic people who never settle anywhere permanently.
The Rautes deny any idea of permanent settlement, education, or farming. The
fact that the Rautes, Nepal's last fulltime nomads, survived throughout this
century is truly remarkable in our current period of declining cultural diversity.
The total population of Rautes in Nepal is estimated to be around 180, or about
52 families. Nepal's mid-west region remains its only sanctuary. This study
aims to examine the development of tribal in Nepal. The Rautes have been
taken as a case study as they are the last nomads of Nepal.

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How to Cite

Pawan Koundal, & Jagdishor Panday. (2021). Tribal Development in Nepal: The Case of Rautes. BRICS JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, 11(1), 39-43. Retrieved from