Armah's The Beautyful Ones are not yet Born: A Study of Symbols


  • Dr. Harpreet Singh EIT, (Mai Nefhi) Eritrea
  • Mussie Tewelde EIT, (Mai Nefhi) Eritrea


Symbol, Filth, Decay, Decadence, Obsession, Corruption, National-Game, Journey, The Sea.


This paper aims at analyzing various symbols and images used by Armah in
The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born, including scatological ones. The novel
makes abundant use of filth, decay, refuse, debris, shit, urine, spittle, vomit: all
types of human excretions. The novelist seems to have an obsession with
human waste and vulgar language which makes this novel repulsive for the
common readers and for some critics. But paradoxically it is this obsession of
Armah which evinces his novelistic competence and helps make different
interpretations of the text and unearth multiple layers of meanings hidden
beneath scatological symbols. It is the symbolic structure of the novel which
makes it mature, rich, and sublime and a canonical work. An analysis of the
symbols unfolds various dimensions of the novel and cements its place among
the world-class novels

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How to Cite

Dr. Harpreet Singh, & Mussie Tewelde. (2017). Armah’s The Beautyful Ones are not yet Born: A Study of Symbols. BRICS JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH, 7(4), 152-156. Retrieved from